Diabetes is a chronic disease with long term complications including retinal complications. Diabetes Mellitus is classified as Type 1 or Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus(IDDM) or Type 2 Non- Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) being the resistance of the body tissues to the action of insulin. Diabetic retinopathy is the most serious sight-threatening complication of diabetes. All structures of the eye though, and many aspects of visual function are susceptible to the effects of DM, increasing with age and duration of the disease.
A small percentage of the population with DM develop glaucoma. Cataracts are 2-4 times more prevalent, occurring at younger ages and progress more rapidly. All diabetic patients should be informed of the possibility of developing retinopathy with or without symptoms and the associated threat of vision loss.